American History Information Guide


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Library Resources




History Databases



Middletown Thrall Library provides its patrons with a number of databases and online reference works.

These databases are available at the library, and many can be accessed at home by members of Thrall.

Please click on any link below to learn what each database / reference work offers:


History Databases
Other General Research Databases to Consider




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American History Resources
in the Library Catalog



You click any of the following topics to browse
history items in the library catalog.



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General Topics




Documents




Historic Persons




United States Presidents




Wars







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Reference Works



The following titles are a very small and somewhat random sample of the many excellent history reference works available at Middletown Thrall Library's Reference Department.

The "call numbers" beneath each title indicate where in the Reference section these books can be found:



For more titles, you can browse the History section at Reference starting with the 900s, or you can ask our librarians for assistance.


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Web Resources




Overviews of American History

AFL-CIO: Our History
"Working people built America - its buildings, institutions, cultures and values. The history of work in this country helps us understand our social and economic status today and prepares us to navigate the economy and politics of the future." Biographies, a timeline, key events, and a annotated collection of links detailing the labor movement history from colonial time through the present. Please be aware that the history is presented from a pro labor point of view. From the AFL-CIO.
American History Lives at American Heritage
Stories, photos of artifacts, and information on historical sites. Includes archives of the American Heritage magazine from 1954 through 2012.
The American Memory Project from the Library of Congress
This source, produced by the closest thing Americans have to an actual national library, the Library of Congress, captures people, places, time periods, topics, and major events in American history, culture, and life in varied media -- photos, documents, motion pictures, maps, etc. These special collections continue to increase in number, and this site is searchable.

For study of historical documents in the development of the United States of America "A Century of Lawmaking for a New Nation, 1774-1873" contains records and acts of Congress from the Continental Congress through the 42nd Congress. The records of the Continental Congress, the Constitutional Convention, and the United States Congress comprise a rich documentary history of the construction of the nation, the development of the federal government, and its role in the national life.
The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History: History by Era
"'History by Era' is the Institute's innovative new approach to our shared national history. At its core it is a collection of fifty individual introductions written by some of the most distinguished scholars of our day. It thus speaks to the reader not in one voice, but in fifty different, unique voices as each of these scholars interprets the developments, movements, events, and ideas of a particular era. Each Era follows the same template so that readers can move easily from one to another. An introduction to the time period is followed by essays by leading scholars; primary sources with images, transcripts, and a historical introduction; multimedia presentations by historians and master teachers; interactive presentations; and lesson plans and other classroom resources."
  • Great Depression & WWII
  • 1945 to the Present
  • Themes - Includes African American History, American Indian History, Art, Music and Film, Economics, US Foreign Policy, Government and Civics, Immigration and Migration, Literature and Language Arts, Military History, Reform Movements, Religion, and Women's History.
Outline of U. S. History
Adobe PDF of a 380 page text of American history from early settlement through the 2008 election. From Bureau of International Information Programs, United States Department of State.
PBS Online History's Best on PBS
This is the complimentary web site for the Public Broadcasting Service. It offers links to fascinating episodes, events, and people that make up the American experience, without much duplication from the other general sites included in this guide. Sample subjects include:
U.S. History
Short articles from CliffNotes:
1. U.S. History I
2. U.S. History II
We the People
"We the People is an NEH program designed to encourage and enhance the teaching, study, and understanding of American history, culture, and democratic principles. Delve into EDSITEment's contribution with these lesson plans, websites, and special features!" An EDSITEement website from the National Endowment for the Humanities.

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Founding Fathers
& the U.S. Constitution

America's Founding Fathers - Delegates to the Constitutional Convention
Provides a Biographical Index with information about each Founding Father. Provided by the U.S. National Archives and Records Administration (NARA).
The American Founders Online: An Annotated Guide to Their Papers and Publications
"The digital resources described in this guide provide online access, in varying degrees, to the personal papers and/or publications of the major founders of the American Republic -- that is, those men who served in roles of national political leadership between 1765 and 1815 -- and members of their families." Included are John Adams, Samuel Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, George Washington, and others. From the Library of Congress (LOC).
Constitution: Videos
From The History Channel.
Creating the United States
"This exhibition [from the Library of Congress] offers a remarkable opportunity to learn in a fresh new way how the [U.S.] founding documents ... were forged out of insight, invention, and creativity, as well as collaboration and much compromise." The Declaration of Independence, the U.S. Constitution, and the Bill of Rights are featured in this exhibition. Links to other exhibits, lesson plans, and papers from some of the founding fathers are included here.
The Founders: Who Are These Men?
Brief biographies (arranged by state) from the U.S. National Constitution Center.
Founding Fathers Image Gallery
This is a collection of images organized around the theme of Founding Fathers. Other historical "clip art" images are presented here as well.


See also: Images & Documents


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American Presidents, Vice-Presidents,
and First Ladies

The American Presidency Project
The American Presidency Project was established in 1999 as a collaboration between John Woolley and Gerhard Peters at the University of California, Santa Barbara. The archive of over 90,000 documents includes Executive Orders, Proclamations, Veto Messages, press conferences, State of the Union Addresses, various other presidential addresses, and election data.
American President: Resource on the US Presidents
Created by the the University of Virginia's Miller Center of Public Affairs, the nation's leading research institute for the study of the American presidency. It is described as the "most comprehensive, non-partisan resource on the history and workings of the American presidency." The website includes extensive biographies of every president and first lady; richly detailed event timelines; biographies of cabinet officials, presidential staffers, advisers and multimedia resource galleries for each of the 43 presidencies.
Chronological List of Presidents, First Ladies, and Vice Presidents of the United States
Dates, names, and images. From the Library of Congress.
First Ladies
Biograpahies of the First Ladies from Martha Washington to Michelle Obama. Also includes timelines of events during their lives. From the National First Ladies Library.
National Archives Presidential Libraries and Museums
Use these links from the National Archives Library Information Center to find information about presidential libraries, presidential documents, the U. S. Presidents, First Ladies, and Inagurations.
Presidential Timelines of the Twentieth Century
Links to the digitized collections of the presidential libraries from Hoover to George W. Bush. This beautiful website explores national events as well as the individual lives of the presidents. Educational units on many historical topics are included.
Presidential Trivia
Some interesting facts on U.S. Presidents. From Factmonster.
Scripps Library
Created by the University of Virginia, Scripps Library, this site offers hundred of hours of secret White House recordings from Franklin D. Roosevelt, John F. Kennedy, and Lyndon Johnson. Additional digital content includes important presidential speeches and oral recordings. Links are provided to individual pages of each president where you can locate information about the availability of their private and public papers both online and in paper. The digital collection will continue to grow.
The White House: The First Ladies
Biographies. Includes a biography of First Lady Michelle Obama.
The White House: Presidents of the United States
Includes biographies of: George Washington, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, James Monroe, John Quincy Adams, Andrew Jackson, Martin Van Buren, William Henry Harrison, John Tyler, James K. Polk, Zachary Taylor, Millard Fillmore, Franklin Pierce, James Buchanan, Abraham Lincoln, Andrew Johnson, Ulysses S. Grant, Rutherford B. Hayes, James Garfield, Chester A. Arthur, Grover Cleveland, Benjamin Harrison, Grover Cleveland, William McKinley, Theodore Roosevelt, William Howard Taft, Woodrow Wilson, Warren G. Harding, Calvin Coolidge, Herbert Hoover, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Harry S. Truman, Dwight D. Eisenhower , John F. Kennedy, Lyndon B. Johnson, Richard M. Nixon, Gerald R. Ford, James Carter, Ronald Reagan, George H. W. Bush, William J. Clinton, George W. Bush, Barack Obama.

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Images & Documents

American Journeys
"American Journeys contains more than 18,000 pages of eyewitness accounts of North American exploration, from the sagas of Vikings in Canada in AD1000 to the diaries of mountain men in the Rockies 800 years later. " Funded by the U.S. Institute of Museum & Library Services and by private donors, American Journeys is a collaborative project of the Wisconsin Historical Society and National History Day.
American Memory Collections: Original Format: Photos & Prints
An important part of the Library's National Digital Library Program are its collections of original format photos and prints. This project gives the public an opportunity to view fascinating and often unique representations of American history and life. Portraits of the Presidents and First Ladies are here as are Daguerreotype portraits and views, Civil War photographs, baseball cards, quilts, and much more.
The Archive of Early American Images
"The Archive of Early American Images is drawn from the holdings of the John Carter Brown Library. The AEAI assists scholars in their quest for contemporary images to illustrate their research findings and to facilitate the study of historical images in their own right and in proper context. It is a unique resource for picture researchers, documentary filmmakers, and others looking for material for commercial use. Many of these American images come from books printed in the early modern period that have never been reproduced before." From Brown University.
Archive.org - United States Census
Contains digital versions of every census from 1790-1930.
Charters of Freedom
The Declaration of Independence, the Constitution, the Bill of Rights, and more. Provided by National Archives and Records Administration (NARA).
Images of American Political History
This site consists of a collection of more than 500 public domain images of American political history. Browse by era, special topic, or search by keyword. Images are in two sizes with very brief captions. All of the presidents are represented, and most have more than one image.
Our Documents
Includes 100 "milestone documents," related resources and a teacher's toolbox - integrating documents into the classroom
Teaching American History: Document Library
"The following is a list of letters, speeches, documents, web sites, books, and articles on signifcant people and events in American political thought and history. Rather than being a comprehensive list of available resources, it is meant to be a list of the best resources available on the given subject." From the Ashbrook Center for Public Affairs at Ashland University.
U. S. Historical Documents
This site, created by the University of Oklahoma College of Law, is a chronological listing of full text primary source documents in American history pre-dating the colonial period through the current year. Entries begin with the Magna Carta and include the 2003 Inaugural Address of George W. Bush.

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History by Period



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Discovery - Colonial History

Colonial Williamsburg
Click on History to find information on life in the eighteenth century. It takes a little digging, but there is excellent information on trades and daily life.
Exploring the Early Americas
"Exploring the Early Americas features selections from the more than 3,000 rare maps, documents, paintings, prints, and artifacts that make up the Jay I. Kislak Collection at the Library of Congress. It provides insight into indigenous cultures, the drama of the encounters between Native Americans and European explorers and settlers, and the pivotal changes caused by the meeting of the American and European worlds. The exhibition includes two extraordinary maps by Martin Waldseemuller created in 1507 and 1516, which depict a world enlarged by the presence of the Western Hemisphere." From the Library of Congress.
1492: An Ongoing Voyage
"1492. Columbus. The date and the name provoke many questions related to the linking of very different parts of the world, the Western Hemisphere and the Mediterranean. What was life like in those areas before 1492? What spurred European expansion? How did European, African and American peoples react to each other? What were some of the immediate results of these contacts? 1492: An Ongoing Voyage addresses such questions by examining the rich mixture of societies coexisting in five areas of this hemisphere before European arrival. It then surveys the polyglot Mediterranean world at a dynamic turning point in its development.The exhibition examines the first sustained contacts between American people and European explorers, conquerors and settlers from 1492 to 1600. During this period, in the wake of Columbus's voyages, Africans also arrived in the hemisphere, usually as slaves. All of these encounters, some brutal and traumatic, others more gradual, irreversibly changed the way in which peoples in the Americas led their lives." From the Library of Congress.
Jamestown Fact Sheets
Includes timelines and detailed information on the historical significance of Jamestown as well as historic personalities and industries. From the National Park Service.
Plymouth Colony Archive Project
"The Plymouth Colony Archive Project is designed to provide a general audience with historical analyses and original source documents concerning the Colony's existence in the period of 1620-1691. This internet project was initiated in 1998 by Patricia Scott Deetz, James Deetz and Christopher Fennell. This site is designed to make available historical constructions on various topics of the Colony's social history, and to provide interactive access to the underlying primary sources, so you can undertake your own analysis and interpretations."
Virtual Jamestown
"The Virtual Jamestown Archive is a digital research, teaching and learning project that explores the legacies of the Jamestown settlement and 'the Virginia experiment.'"

See also:
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The American Revolution

The American Revolution
"This website, created by The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation with support from a major grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities, draws upon Colonial Williamsburg's eighteenth-century collections to provide visitors a unique opportunity to explore the rich interconnected nature of life in a revolutionary world. Revolutionary Williamsburg was at the core of networks of people, goods, and thoughts that bound the eighteenth-century British Empire's largest and oldest mainland North American province to the rest of the globe. Using Williamsburg as a window into a revolutionary world, the website encourages visitors to share in the story of the collapse of the British Empire and the making of an American nation through the same myriad influences that shaped the perspectives of the extraordinary people - free and enslaved, women and men, rich and poor, Native American and European - who transformed the Atlantic world in the second half of the eighteenth century."
Liberty! The American Revolution
This is the PBS companion site to its televised documentary by the same name. It provides an excellent overview of the Revolution. Its Chronicle of the Revolution link is particularly good, especially for students. Check out its clearly presented Timeline of the Revolution with textual links to key events from 1760 to 1791. Liberty Links is an annotated series of links of additional internet resources related to the Revolution. The quality of these links is uneven, but still worth a look. Many links are good, ex. "Papers of George Washington," "Battles of the American Revolutionary War," while other links are unrelated to the topic, "The Nashville Symphony" or are "not found".
Papers of the War Department 1784-1800
Long believed to have been destroyed in the devastating fire of 1800, fifty five thousand documents in this earliest period have been painstakingly reconstructed from archives scattered across the United States. The Papers record much more than just military history, including Indian and veteran affairs. Various search options and free access are offered online. This project has been taken over by scholars at George Mason University.
Spy Letters of the American Revolution
"The exhibit is based on spy letters from the William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan. The Gallery of Letters provides a brief description of each letter and links to more information about the stories of the spies in the letter or the secret methods used to make the letter."

See also:
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The 19th Century

The Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition
"This website makes available the text of the celebrated Nebraska edition of the Lewis and Clark journals, edited by Gary E. Moulton. Moulton's edition - the most accurate and inclusive edition ever published - is one of the major scholarly achievements of the late twentieth century.The site features the full text - almost five thousand pages - of the journals. Also included are a gallery of images, important supplemental texts, and audio files of selected passages plus Native American perspectives. The Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition Online is sponsored by the National Endowment for the Humanities, the Center for Great Plains Studies, the University of Nebraska Center for Digital Research in the Humanities, and University of Nebraska Press."
Lewis & Clark: The National Bicentennial Exhibition
Created for the centennial traveling exhibition, this website hosts a virtual journey and curriculum units. Organized by the Missouri Historical Society and presented by Emerson. Virtual tour requires the Flash plug-in.
Making of America
"The Cornell University Library Making of America Collection is a digital library of primary sources in American social history from the antebellum period through reconstruction. The collection is particularly strong in the subject areas of education, psychology, American history, sociology, religion, and science and technology. This site provides access to 267 monograph volumes and over 100,000 journal articles with 19th century imprints. The project represents a major collaborative endeavor in preservation and electronic access to historical texts."
The U.S. - Mexican War, 1846-1848
Includes a chronology, maps, images and documents of the war.
The War of 1812
A detailed overview from SparkNotes.
Westward Expansion (1807-1912)
An overview from SparkNotes.
The World Of 1898: The Spanish American War
"This presentation provides resources and documents about the Spanish-American War, the period before the war, and some of the fascinating people who participated in the fighting or commented about it. Information about Cuba, Guam, the Philippines, Puerto Rico, Spain, and the United States is provided in chronologies, bibliographies, and a variety of pictorial and textual material from bilingual sources, supplemented by an overview essay about the war and the period. Among the participants and authors featured are such well-known figures as Presidents Grover Cleveland, William McKinley, and Theodore Roosevelt, as well as Admiral George Dewey and author Mark Twain (United States), together with other important figures such as Antonio Maceo and Jose Marti (Cuba), Roman Baldorioty de Castro and Lola Rodriguez de Tio (Puerto Rico), Jose Rizal and Emilio Aguinaldo (Philippines), and Antonio Canovas del Castillo and Ramon Blanco (Spain)." From the Library of Congress.

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Slavery

Aboard the Underground Railroad
"Aboard the Underground Railroad: A National Register of Historic Places Travel Itinerary introduces travelers, researchers, historians, preservationists, and anyone interested in African American history to the fascinating people and places associated with the Underground Railroad. The itinerary currently provides descriptions and photographs on 64 historic places that are listed in the National Park Service's National Register of Historic Places, America's official list of places important in our history and worthy of preservation. It also includes a map of the most common directions of escape taken on the Underground Railroad and maps of individual states that mark the location of the historic properties." From the National Park Service.
The African American Mosaic
Topics include colonization, abolition and migration. From the Library of Congress.
African-American Odyssey
From the American Memory project at the Library of Congress.
Slave Narratives
Excerpts from slave narratives and other related topics, including links to the Works Progress Administration's American Life Histories Project, are featured as important links from Yahoo's topical site. These links provide students of American history with powerful imagery and important primary source materials.
Slavery: Voyages - The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database
"Has information on almost 35,000 slaving voyages that forcibly embarked over 10 million Africans for transport to the Americas between the sixteenth and nineteenth centuries. It offers researchers,students and the general public a chance to rediscover the reality of one of the largest forced movements of peoples in world history."
The Underground Railroad
"During the 1800s, estimates suggest that more than 100,000 enslaved people sought freedom through the Underground Railroad. The Underground Railroad is the symbolic term given to the routes enslaved Black Americans took to gain their freedom as they traveled, often as far as Canada and Mexico. Free Blacks, Whites, Native Americans and other slaves acted as conductors by aiding fugitive slaves to their freedom. This 19th century freedom movement challenged the way Americans viewed slavery and freedom." From the National Underground railroad Freedom Center.

See also:
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Civil War

The Civil War (1861-1865) is arguably the seminal event in American history. The Internet resources on this subject are vast and varied, with information for both the casual high school student and the serious scholar/expert.
The Civil War
Companion to Ken Burn's masterpiece, this website has short biographies, maps and statistics of key battles, and a fact sheet of fascinating information. From PBS.
The Civil War: 150 Years
A timeline of historical events, Civil War stories, lesson plans, and details of NPS events scheduled for the sesquicentennial are included in this website from the National Park Service.
Civil War Anniversary Websites
Directory of websites commemorating the Civil War sesquicentennial. Includes links to battles, maps, photos, lesson plans, state committees, and other resources.
The Civil War Index
An extensive list of Internet resources.
Disunion
"One-hundred-and-fifty years ago, Americans went to war with themselves. Disunion revisits and reconsiders America's most perilous period -- using contemporary accounts, diaries, images and historical assessments to follow the Civil War as it unfolded." From the New York Times Opinion Pages.
New York City Draft Riots of 1863
This excerpt from the book "In the Shadow of Slavery: African Americans in New York City, 1626-1863" discusses the July 1863 riots in New York City that followed the enactment of a new conscription lottery law. "Throughout the week of riots mobs harassed and sometimes killed blacks and their supporters and destroyed their property." From the University of Chicago Press.
U.S. Center of Military History Staff Rides
Detailed briefing books (some available only in PDF) on the following battles: Ball's Bluff, First Bull Run, Second Bull Run, Antietam, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, and Wilderness/Spotsylvania. Contains biographies of commanders and leaders, strategies, artillery and unit details, maps, and day by day chronologies.

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The 20th Century

The twentieth century, according to Harold Evans in his history entitled The American Century, belongs to the United States because of the "triumph of its faith in its founding idea of political and economic freedom." He credits the United States with sustaining Western civilization by "acts of courage, generosity, and vision." The internet sites included here reflect many different viewpoints and subjects relating to American civilization in the twentieth century.
America at War 1941-1945
The University of Richmond Federal Depository collection has an archive of digitized War Department materials consisting of "Army Talks" newsletters and pamphlets entitled G. I. Roundtable. The collection is called America at War and focuses on topics of interest to the daily life of soldiers.
American Cultural History: The Twentieth Century
Information about the cultural history of each decade in this century up to 1999 is included at this site which has been prepared by reference librarians at Kingwood College Library (Texas). The format for each decade remains the same. It includes short statistical facts about each decade and the following topics: Arts & Architecture, Books & Literature, Education, Events & Technology, Fads & Fashions, Music & Theater, Film & Radio & Television. Within each division are suggested internet links for further research. A good site for students who are frequently asked to write about a single decade.
American Experience: Timeline of the Great Depression
Detailed timeline from the American Experience episode: Riding the Rails.
Civil Rights Movement & Leaders
Collection of annotated links from Middletown Thrall Library's African American History Resources.
Cold War International History Project: Virtual Archive 2.0
Large collection of historic documents from the Cold War era. From the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars.
The Great War
A history of World War I including maps and timelines. From PBS.
The Influenza Epidemic of 1918
This topic was created by the National Archives and Record Administration and is not part of the existing Gilder-Lehrman Insittue topics. It offers a good overview of the subject and includes documents and photos from the Archives.
The Korean War
A detailed overview from SparkNotes.
The Korean War and Its Origins 1945-1953
Collections of documents and photographs from the Harry S. Truman Library and Museum.
The Presidency and the Cold War
An online exhibition from the Smithsonian on how the ten presidents of this era shaped and were shaped by the events of the Cold War.
Remembering the Triangle Factory Fire
"This site includes selected information on a terrible and unnecessary tragedy involving the death of many young working women in a New York City sweatshop at the beginning of the 20th century and the resulting investigations and reforms. You will find original documents, oral histories, and photographs. You can hear and read first-hand accounts by survivors and others that will provide a glimpse into the lives of workers and a sense of the horrors of a factory fire that claimed the lives of 146 young workers." From Cornell University - ILR School.
The Twentieth Century
(Resources from Yahoo!) - A metasite arranged chronologically and topically. Many unique subjects in American history are found here. Important topics include The Great Depression, Civil Rights Movement and Military History
World War II and New York City
"Examines the experiences of New Yorkers on the home front and those who served." From the New York Historical Society.
World War II Documents Digitized
Digitized copies of more than 300 World War II documents are now available to the public thanks to a partnership between the U.S. Government Printing Office and Southern Methodist University Central University Libraries. The collection includes informational pamphlets, government reports, regulations, and instructions.

See also:
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The 21st Century

Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States
Includes the public papers of President George W. Bush and President Barack Obama. From the National Archives.
September 11, 2001, Documentary Project
"The September 11, 2001, Documentary Project captures the heartfelt reactions, eyewitness accounts, and diverse opinions of Americans and others in the months that followed the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center, the Pentagon, and United Airlines Flight 93. Patriotism and unity mixed with sadness, anger, and insecurity are common themes expressed in this online presentation of almost 200 audio and video interviews, 45 graphic items, and 21 written narratives." An American Memory Project from the Library of Congress.
September 11 Digital Archive
"The September 11 Digital Archive uses electronic media to collect, preserve, and present the history of September 11, 2001 and its aftermath. The Archive contains more than 150,000 digital items, a tally that includes more than 40,000 emails and other electronic communications, more than 40,000 first-hand stories, and more than 15,000 digital images." From the Center for History and New Media and American Social History Project/Center for Media and Learning.
START: National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism
"The National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism, known as START, was established in 2005 to use state of-the-art theories, methods and data from the social and behavioral sciences to better understand the origins, dynamics and social and psychological impacts of terrorism.Our research informs decisions on how to disrupt terrorist networks,reduce the incidence of terrorism and enhance the resilience of our society in the face of the terrorist threat." From the University of Maryland.

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Immigration

Leaving Europe: A New Life in America
A Europeana exhibit of digitized materials arrranged in the following themes: The Homeland of Migrating Groups, Motivations and Aspirations, Departure and Arrival, Life in America, Nativism, Contact with Homelands.
Immigration to the United States 1789-1930: Aspiration Acculturation, and Impact
"Immigration to the United States, 1789-1930, is a web-based collection of historical materials from Harvard's libraries, archives, and museums that documents voluntary immigration to the United States from the signing of the Constitution to the onset of the Great Depression." From Harvard University Library Open Collections Program.

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Native Americans

Avalon Project: Treaties Between the United States and Native Americans
Indians/Native Americans
"This page contains links to American history relating to Native Americans." From the National Archives.
National Museum of the American Indian
The official web site of the National Museum of the American Indian, which has locations in Washington D.C. and New York City.
The Native American Collection
"This collection of documents, artifacts, photographs, and publications provides the basis for uncovering and describing the lives, lands, diplomacy, political leadership, and kinship of all of the government-recognized Indian communities of New York as well as those that are no longer resident in the state. They include the Iroquois Six Nations - Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas, Senecas, and Tuscaroras - as well as the Long Island Algonkians, Shinnecocks, and Poospatucks (Unquachog - Quiripi); the latter include the Mohicans (Mahicans), Munsees, Brothertowns and Stockbridges." From the New York State Archives.
Native Americans
"Gather information on American Indian leaders and culture. Study essays, music, maps and images related to the treatment and portrayal of American Indians by European explorers and settlers. Examine treaties dating from 1778-1842 and images and documents relating to assimilating American Indians through education." From the Library of Congress.
Native Words Native Warriors
"The National Museum of the American Indian honors American Indian Code Talkers. This is a companion website to the traveling Smithsonian Institution exhibition, Native Words, Native Warriors."
Trail of Tears National Historic Trail
"In 1838, the United States government forcibly removed more than 16,000 Cherokee Indian people from their homelands in Tennessee, Alabama, North Carolina, and Georgia, and sent them to Indian Territory (today known as Oklahoma)." From the National Park Service.
We Shall Remain
"We Shall Remain is a groundbreaking mini-series and provocative multi-media project that establishes Native history as an essential part of American history. Five 90-minute documentaries spanning three hundred years tell the story of pivotal moments in U.S. history from the Native American perspective." From PBS.



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