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Web Resources
General Astronomy
Solar System, Planets, the Universe

Astronomy for Kids
Learn about the solar system, sunrises and sunsets, constellations, and the "ABCs of Observing." From Astronomy magazine.
Exploring the Planets
Covers the history and tools for studying the solar system. Compare planets, and explore comets.
Imagine the Universe Dictionary
Goddard Space Flight Center's astronomical dictionary.
NASA Kids Club
Learn about space with Buzz Lightyear, play games, and more.
NASA Planetary Photojournal
Find thousands of images from NASA of all the planets and more.
Solar and Heliospheric Observatory Classroom
Find information about the sun and SOHO spacecraft that was sent to the sun in 1995. Includes a glossary, activities, links and much more.
News and resources concerning current and future space missions
Space Weather
"News and information about the Sun-Earth environment" from NASA.
Star Date: The Solar System
Find current information and images of our solar system and the explorations we have taken to explore them.
Tonight's Sky
Find daily articles of what to look for in the night sky, blogs, podcasts and much more.
Windows to the Universe
Approached from a historical and cultural outlook the ties between science, exploration, and the human experience. Includes teaching resources.

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Space Telescopes

Allen Telescope Array
"The Allen Telescope Array (ATA) is a joint effort of the SETI Institute and the Radio Astronomy Laboratory at the University of California, Berkeley."
Amazing Space
Resources based on the Hubble Space Telescope's greatest discoveries. It includes games, homework help, a glossary and much more.
Arecibo Observatory
Famous radio telescope located in Puerto Rico. "Arecibo Observatory is part of the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center (NAIC), a national research center operated by Cornell University under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation (NSF)." Arecibo is also used in the SETI and SETI@home projects.
Astronomy Web Guide
Each web site listed includes a brief description of the web site's features & highlights to help you in your search. For students, teachers, and parents, and the general public.
Chandra X-ray Observatory
"Since its launch on July 23, 1999, the Chandra X-ray Observatory has been NASA's flagship mission for X-ray astronomy." Includes news, images archived by year, as well as special features for students and educators. Website provided by the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. NASA maintains its own Chandra Mission website.
"Cool Cosmos"
From California Technological Institute. Games, homework help and infrared images of space, animals and everyday items.
European Southern Observatory (ESO)
"ESO, the European Southern Observatory, builds and operates a suite of the world's most advanced ground-based astronomical telescopes." Includes news, images, and scientific data of astronomical observations and research.
GLAST: The Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope
"GLAST is the first imaging gamma-ray observatory to survey the entire sky every day and with high sensitivity. It will give scientists a unique opportunity to learn about the ever-changing Universe at extreme energies." See also this Thrall blog post for more GLAST-related links.
Herschel Space Observatory
Sporting "the largest single mirror ever built for a space telescope," Herschel will focus on "the coldest and most distant objects in the Universe." It is also said to be "the only space observatory to cover a spectral range from the far infrared to sub-millimetre." From the European Space Agency (ESA).
HubbleSite: The Hubble Space Telescope
The official website of the Hubble Space Telescope. Includes pictures, news, and discoveries. See also Hubble's European Space Administration (ESA) home page and the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI).
James Webb Space Telescope
"The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large, infrared-optimized space telescope, scheduled for launch in 2013. JWST will find the first galaxies that formed in the early Universe, connecting the Big Bang to our own Milky Way Galaxy."
Kepler Mission
"The Kepler Mission, NASA Discovery mission #10, is specifically designed to survey our region of the Milky Way galaxy to discover hundreds of Earth-size and smaller planets in or near the habitable zone and determine how many of the billions of stars in our galaxy have such planets." Website provided by NASA.
Planck Microwave Telescope
This space telescope will analyze "remnants of radiation that filled the Universe immediately after the Big Bang, which we observe today as the Cosmic Microwave Background." From the European Space Agency (ESA).
Very Large Array National Radio Astronomy Observatory
Includes news, images, FAQs, educational information for students and teachers, and more detailed data for astronomers.
The Very Large Telescope Project (VLT)
Described as "the flagship facility for European astronomy." Includes information about the facility as well as an archive of astronomical images. See also this VLT page for more information and related links.

Astronomy - Amateur Astronomy & Observation Basics

Stargazing Basics
Sections include: How to Start Right in Astronomy, Words Ya Gotta Know, Constellation Names and Abbreviations, Names of the Stars, Names of Deep-Sky Objects, Understanding Celestial Coordinates, Time and the Amateur Astronomer, The Stellar Magnitude System, Spectral Types of Stars, Secrets of Deep-Sky Observing, Observing from the City. From Sky and Telescope.
Astrophotography 101: How to Take Stellar Pictures
From Space.com.
How to Buy a Telescope
Tips and things to consider. From About.com.
Stargazing - Questions and Answers
Basic to advanced topics. From Cornell University's "Ask an Astronomer" website.

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All Living Things
Click on a group such as reptile, fungi, coral etc. to find photos, maps, identification guides and more.
Biology 101
Sections/topics include: Introduction (Unifying Themes of Biology, Careers, Conservation, Scientific Method), Chemistry of Life (Atoms, Chemical Bonds, WaterThe Cell, Cell Theory (Types of Cells, Membrane Structure, Permeability, Connection / Communication), Cellular Metabolism (Energy, Respiration, Photosynthesis), Cell Division (Cycle, Chromosomes, Mitosis, Meiosis), Mendelian genetics (Heritability, Phenotype vs. Genotype, Punnett Squares, Other Mechanisms of Inheritance), DNA, Genes,and Proteins (Structure, Replication, Protein), Gene Revolution (Biotechnology, Cloning, Genomics), Mechanisms of Evolution (Darwinian Theory of Evolution, Speciation, Phylogeny and Systematics), Origins (Early Earth, Life Forms), Evolution and Diversity of Land Plants,, Plant Structure / Growth / Reproduction / Behavior, Animal Evolution / Diversity / Physiology / Reproduction / Development / Behavior, Skeletal and Muscular Systems, Gas Exchange and Circulation (Respiration, Human Respiratory System), Nutrition and Digestion, Osmoregulation, Urinary / Immune / Endocrine / Nervous Systems (Neurons, Nerves Signals, Synapses), Population Dynamics and Community Ecology, Ecosystems and Biomes, Conservation (Species Extinction, Population Recovery). Also includes a glossary. From SparkNotes.com.
Brainy Kids
All things about the brain. Includes games, lesson plans and virtual lab experiments.
Reliable information on over 5,500 plants and wild animals. Includes an online version of the Sibley Guide to Birds as well as information from Audubon field guides.
Encyclopedia of Life
"The Encyclopedia of Life (EOL) is an ambitious, even audacious project to organize and make available via the Internet virtually all information about life present on Earth. At its heart lies a series of Web sitesone for each of the approximately 1.8 million known speciesthat provide the entry points to this vast array of knowledge. The entry-point for each site is a species page suitable for the general public, but with several linked pages aimed at more specialized users. The sites sparkle with text and images that are enticing to everyone, as well as providing deep links to specific data."
Tree of Life
Provides information about the diversity of organisms on Earth, their evolutionary history (phylogeny), and characteristics. Linked hierarchically.

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American Chemical Society: For Kids
Learn about chemistry and play games.
Chemistry made simple.
Chemistry Study Guides
Sections include: Fundamentals of Chemistry (Units, Scientific Notation, Significant Figures, Periodic Table, Atomic Structure), Bonding (Chemical Bonding, Properties of Chemical Bonds, Ionic / Covalent Bonds), Stoichiometry, Gases (Pressure, Kinetic Molecular Theory), Solutions (Chemicals, Compositions, Properties, Solubility), Acids and Bases (pH, Buffers, Titrations), Electrochemistry (Galvanic / Electrolytic Cells, Thermodynamics), Reaction Kinetics (Reaction Rate Laws, Mechanisms), Organic Chemistry. From SparkNotes.
Chemistry at About.com
Includes many links and articles to chemistry information.
It's Elemental: The Periodic Table of Elements
Click on the element for basic uses and facts on each one.
Periodic Table of the Elements
This periodic table is geared toward elementary, middle school, and high school students. Information includes descriptions of the elements, the naming of new elements, what the periodic table is and how to use it, and "Chemistry in a Nutshell."
Timeline: The Discovery of Elements
The timeline starts with early history and ends in the 1970s.
Web Elements
Two versions of the periodic table exists at this site: the "Professional" edition for scientists and advanced students, and the "Scholarly" edition aimed at school students. Click on an element to get its description and essential characteristics, then choose other information, such as history, uses, compounds, and updates.
Words to Know
Scroll through the alphabetical list of chemical terms related to the elements.

Earth Science
Browse related items
in the library catalog:

Climate Change
Special coverage web guide providing access to web and library resources about climate change, global warming, and related concepts. Provided by Middletown Thrall Library.
EarthGuide - Educational Resources in Earth, Marine, Environmental and Planetary Sciences
Contents include: news, image database, animations, "Current Conditions on Earth" directory, resources for students and teachers, and more. From the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, UC San Diego.
Environment Blog
Environmental news, issues, reports, and other resources on the web and in the library. A Middletown Thrall Library blog.
How Stuff Works - Earth Science Channel
Learn about carbon-14 dating, archeology, geology, fossils, diamonds, and much more.
NASA: Earth
Includes News, Earth Tweets, Earth Image of the Day, Climate Change, Hurricane Updates, Fires and Smoke, and other topics.

See also these related NASA sites:
Earth Observatory
"The purpose of NASA's Earth Observatory is to provide a freely-accessible publication on the Internet where the public can obtain new satellite imagery and scientific information about our home planet."
For Kids Only: Earth Sciences Enterprise
General information about planet Earth especially for young people. [note: while this site has not been updated since 2004, the information/interactive activities under pages like "How NASA Studies Land" seems okay)
The Gateway to Astronaut Photography of the Earth
"The Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth hosts the best and most complete online collection of astronaut photographs of the Earth from 1961 through the present."
NASA Kids'Club
the site has many fun activities for kids including memory games, information a space flights and much more. You can tailor the skill levels for different age groups too.
NASA Science for Kids
NASA Science: Earth
Topics include: Climate, Carbon & Ecosystems, Surface & Interior, Atmosphere, Weather, and Water & Energy Cycles. Also includes new on NASA's current Earth science missions.
Solar System Exploration
Space Place
National Geographic
News, images, videos, and other information about Earth science (and other topics).
Observing the Earth
Scientific news, studies, and international projects focusing on Earth. From the European Space Agency (ESA).

Find photos of plants, animals, fossils, people, and landscapes from around the world. Scientific names can be entered to find photos of an organism.
Cool Science for Curious Kids
Curious kids can explore biology through projects, games and much more. From the Howard Hughes Medical Institute.
Digital Image Library
Find photographs and images of nature and the environment, such as animals, plants, humans and the environment, and much more. Most images are freely available for use.
EurekAlert! Science News
Science News, a service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Everyday Mysteries
Questions and answers from the Library of Congress Science Reference Service. Questions such as who invented the automobile, why do cats purr, and many more. Grouped by subjects from agriculture to zoology.
Exploring Nature Educational Resource
Topics arranged under broad areas of Animals and Plants, Planet Earth, Science Words and Pictures, The Human Body, Biology/Life Science, Just for Fun and References. Some topics require membership.
Fractal Geometry
An introduction and overview of fractals from Yale University.
National Inventors Hall of Fame Index of Inventions
Click here for the main invent.org site
Nature Files
Links to specific concepts or ideas in science such as coloration, migration, classification, ecosystems, communication, animals and much more. Each animal article contains the scientific classification, habitat, range, diet, life cycle behavior and characteristics. From New Hampshire Public Television.
Science News For Kids
A web site devoted to science news for children of ages 9 to 14. It offers timely items of interest to kids, accompanied by suggestions for hands-on activities, books, articles, Web resources, and other useful materials. From the publisher of Science News.
Science Study Jams
Topics include: Plants; Human Body; Landforms, Rocks and Minerals; Solar System; Force and Motion; Scientific Inquiry; Animals; Ecosystems; Weather and Climate; Matter; and Energy, Light and Sound. From Scholastic.com.
An online magazine and web portal devoted to science, technology and medicine. Articles are up to the minute.
Explore science and technology through interactive programs and experiments. From the New York Hall of Science.
The Why Files
The science behind current world events in the natural world.

Alphabetical Listing of Mineral Species
Includes: Mineral Pictures, How to Look at a Rock, Identify Rocks, Rock Pictures, Basics (Rocks, Minerals, Gemstones, Earth Resources, Geologic Hazards, Landforms, Fossils, Geologic Time, Evolution, Parts of the Earth, Plate Tectonics, Geology of Other Planets), Earthquakes, and Explore Geology, which includes: Geology of Your Area, Careers and Jobs, Geology and the Arts, History of Geology, Biographies of Geologists, References for Advanced Students, Paleontology, Fieldwork, Travel, and fun facts. From About.com.
Basic questions are answered about the rock cycle, earth's layers, minerals and fossils.
Mineral Science - Learn More
Find links to other geology sites that include clubs, associations, and mineral collections in museums around the world.
Mineral Sciences Collections
The Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County has digitized its mineral collections and you can click on a category to see an image with a brief description. It includes gems, gold, and minerals from California and the world.
Mineral Identification
Identify the minerals you find as you follow the exercises on this site. There are also sections about igneous and metamorphic rocks and the physical characteristics of each kind of rock.
Tour of Geologic Time
Geological eras and time scale / prehistoric timelines. "Here you can journey through the history of the Earth, with stops at particular points in time to examine the fossil record and stratigraphy." Includes information and animations about plate tectonics and continental shifts/movements. From Berkeley University.

Energy Kids
From the U.S. Energy Information Administration.
How Stuff Works: Physics
An introduction to the laws of physics.
Devoted to physics and engineering with a good deal of astronomy information. High quality links, "ask experts", online essays, and on online club for physics teachers. Sprinkled throughout with quotes from Einstein, Aristotle, Hawking and more.
Physics Study Guides
Topics include: Units, Scientific Notation, Significant Figures, Vectors (Addition, Multiplication), Kinematics (1D / 2D Motion), Dynamics (Newton's Three Laws, Uniform Circular Motion), Work, Energy and Power (Conservation of Energy), Linear Momentum (Conservation of Momentum, Collisions), Rotational Motion (Kinetics, Dynamics, Angular Momentum), Oscillations (Simple Harmonic Motions), Gravitation (Kepler, Newton, Potential, Orbits), Thermodynamics (Structure, Gas, Heat), Magnetic Forces and Fields, Optics (Light, Geometric Optics, Optical Phenomena), Special Relativity. From SparkNotes.com.

Quantum Mechanics / Quantum Physics
Factmonster.com: Quantum Theory
How Stuff Works: Quantum Theory
Quantum Physics Overview
From About.com.

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