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Astronomy Web Resources

General Astronomy - Solar System, Planets, the Universe

Asteroid Watch
News, images, videos, frequently asked questions (FAQ), and more about asteroids. From NASA / Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
Astronomy for the Public
Themes include Astromony in Everyday Life; How to Report a Discovery; Near Earth Asteroids; Defining Our Place in Cosmos; Controlling Light Pollution; Near Earth Objects; Buying Stars and Star Names; Naming of Exoplanets; How to Participate in Astronomy Research; Careers in Astronomy; Measuring the Universe; Naming Astronomical Objects; Pluto and the Developing Landscpe of Our Solar System. From the International Astronomical Union.
Astronomy Visual Dictionary
Colorful, labeled diagrams. Topics include Celestial Bodies, Astronomical Observation, and Astronautics. From the Merriam-Webster Visual Dictionary Online.
The Constellations
Charts and tables "produced in collaboration with Sky and Telescope." Includes pronunciations and downloadble PDFs of star patterns (to be found as you scroll further down their page). From the International Astronomical Union (IAU).
Cosmological theories concerning the scientific creation of the universe.
Eric Weisstein's World of Astronomy
The Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia
A catalog/encyclopedia of exoplanets (planets found beyond our solar system). Follow their "Interactive Catalog" link to browse past and newly discovered worlds around other stars (arranged by methods of discovery).
Exploring the Planets
Covers the history and tools for studying the solar system. Compare planets, and explore comets. From the National Air and Space Museum.
Topics: Astronomy, Cosmology, Galaxies, Hubble Space Telescope, Light & Color, Other Observatories, Physics, Solar System, Asteroids & Meteors, Comets, General, Moons, Planets, The Sun, Start & Nebulae. From the Space Telescope Science Institute.
Imagine the Universe Dictionary
Goddard Space Flight Center's astronomical dictionary.
Interactive multimedia about the Earth System; Solar System; Stars and Our Sun; Galaxies and Universe; and Physics. From NASA.
Pluto and the Developing Landscape of Our Solar System
From the International Astronomical Union regarding the change in Pluto's status and planets in general.
Solar Astronomy Resources
Topics include Education; Solar Research; Space Weather; Meta Astronomy; Images; FAQs; Databases, Catalogs, Maps; Abstracts; Other Space Science; Organizations and Journals; and Science Museums. From the Stanford Solar Center.
News and resources concerning current and future space missions
Space Weather
"News and information about the Sun-Earth environment" from NASA.
Star Date: The Solar System
Find current information and images of our solar system and the explorations we have taken to explore them.
Tonight's Sky
Find daily articles of what to look for in the night sky, blogs, podcasts and much more. From
Why Pluto is No Longer a Planet
An article with the history of Pluto's discovery and a clear explanation why it lost the designation of Planet. Also includes a new video. From UniverseToday.
Windows to the Universe
Approached from a historical and cultural outlook the ties between science, exploration, and the human experience. Includes teaching resources.

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Astronomy - Amateur Astronomy & Observation Basics

Amateur Astronomers Association of New York
Astronomical organization in NY.
Becoming an Amateur Astronomeur
From the Denver Astromomical Society.
Stargazing Basics
Sections include: How to Start Right in Astronomy, Words Ya Gotta Know, Constellation Names and Abbreviations, Names of the Stars, Names of Deep-Sky Objects, Understanding Celestial Coordinates, Time and the Amateur Astronomer, The Stellar Magnitude System, Spectral Types of Stars, Secrets of Deep-Sky Observing, Observing from the City. From Sky and Telescope.
How to Buy a Telescope
Tips and things to consider. From
Stargazing - Questions and Answers
Basic to advanced topics. From Cornell University's "Ask an Astronomer" website.
Tonight's Sky
"Your guide to constellations, deep sky objects, planets, and events." Video podcasts from the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI).

Astronomical Observatories (Earth-based)

Arecibo Observatory
Astronomical Observatories around the World
Asteroid, Comet, and Meteor observatories, as well as Future, Gamma-ray, Gravitational Waves, Neutrino, Optical and Infrared, Radio, Solar, Teaching and Public, Ultraviolet, X-ray observatories. Listings from Open Directory Project.
European Southern Observatory (ESO)
James Clerk Maxwell Telescope
Lowell Observatory
Mauna Kea Observatories
McDonald Observatory
Mount Wilson Observatory
National Optical Astronomy Observatory
Includes: Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO), Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO), The NOAO Gemini Science Center (NGSC).
National Radio Astronomy Observatory
The Owens Valley Long Wavelength Array at the Owens Valley Radio Observatory
From Caltech (California Institute of Technology) and NASA/JPL.
Palomar Observatory
Royal Observatory, Edinburgh
Royal Obervatory, London
U.S. Naval Observatory (USNO)
Vatican Observatory
W. M. Keck Observatory

See also:

Multimedia (Images Photographs Videos)

An in-depth series of how-to articles from Sky and Telescope. Topics include: Auroras, Deep-Sky Photography, Guiding a Telescope for Imaging, Digital Cameras, Wide-Field Imaging with CCD Cameras, Planetary Images, and Solar Eclipses.
HubbleSite Gallery
"Explore the universe through Hubble's eye, and witness the most dangerous, spectacular and mysterious depths of the cosmos." From Hubble Space Telescope / Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI). See also Top 100 Images from ESA/Hubble.
Image Galleries
Includes Astronomy Pic of the Day and a search engine. See also NASA Images on the Internet Archive.
NASA on the Commons
NASA Planetary Photojournal
Find thousands of images from NASA of all the planets and more.
See also NASA Television on YouTube.
Project Apollo Archive
"The Project Apollo Archive is an online reference source and repository of digital images pertaining to the historic manned lunar landing program."
Rocket Gallery
"A gallery of photographs of rockets used by NASA to launch a variety of payloads into orbit."
Space Images
NASA / Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and California Institute of Technology.
Video Gallery
Visible Earth
"A catalog of NASA images and animations of our home planet."
Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO)
"SOHO, the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, is a project of international collaboration between ESA and NASA to study the Sun from its deep core to the outer corona and the solar wind." Includes hourly images of the sun as well as news and information.
Space in Images
From European Space Agency (ESA). See also their Space in Videos website. Image Albums
From See also their Space Videos page.

See also:

Space Telescopes

Allen Telescope Array
"The Allen Telescope Array (ATA) is a joint effort of the SETI Institute and the Radio Astronomy Laboratory at the University of California, Berkeley."
Arecibo Observatory
Famous radio telescope located in Puerto Rico. "Arecibo Observatory is part of the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center (NAIC), a national research center operated by Cornell University under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation (NSF)." Arecibo is also used in the SETI and SETI@home projects.
Chandra X-ray Observatory
"Since its launch on July 23, 1999, the Chandra X-ray Observatory has been NASA's flagship mission for X-ray astronomy." Includes news, images archived by year, as well as special features for students and educators. Website provided by the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. NASA maintains its own Chandra Mission website.
European Southern Observatory (ESO)
"ESO, the European Southern Observatory, builds and operates a suite of the world's most advanced ground-based astronomical telescopes." Includes news, images, and scientific data of astronomical observations and research.
The Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT)
"The Giant Magellan Telescope will be one member of the next class of super giant earth-based telescopes that promises to revolutionize our view and understanding of the universe. It will be constructed in the Las Campanas Observatory in Chile."
GLAST: The Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope
"GLAST is the first imaging gamma-ray observatory to survey the entire sky every day and with high sensitivity. It will give scientists a unique opportunity to learn about the ever-changing Universe at extreme energies." See also this Thrall blog post for more GLAST-related links.
Herschel Space Observatory
Sporting "the largest single mirror ever built for a space telescope," Herschel will focus on "the coldest and most distant objects in the Universe." It is also said to be "the only space observatory to cover a spectral range from the far infrared to sub-millimetre." From the European Space Agency (ESA).
HubbleSite: The Hubble Space Telescope
The official website of the Hubble Space Telescope. Includes pictures, news, and discoveries. See also Hubble's European Space Administration (ESA) home page and the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI).
James Webb Space Telescope
"The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large, infrared-optimized space telescope, scheduled for launch in 2013. JWST will find the first galaxies that formed in the early Universe, connecting the Big Bang to our own Milky Way Galaxy."
Kepler Mission
"The Kepler Mission, NASA Discovery mission #10, is specifically designed to survey our region of the Milky Way galaxy to discover hundreds of Earth-size and smaller planets in or near the habitable zone and determine how many of the billions of stars in our galaxy have such planets." Website provided by NASA.
Planck Microwave Telescope
This space telescope will analyze "remnants of radiation that filled the Universe immediately after the Big Bang, which we observe today as the Cosmic Microwave Background." From the European Space Agency (ESA).
Very Large Array National Radio Astronomy Observatory
Includes news, images, FAQs, educational information for students and teachers, and more detailed data for astronomers.
The Very Large Telescope Project (VLT)
Described as "the flagship facility for European astronomy." Includes information about the facility as well as an archive of astronomical images. See also this VLT page for more information and related links.
Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST)
"A mission concept to answer vital questions in both exoplanet detection and dark energy research." From NASA.

All Living Things
Click on a group such as reptile, fungi, coral etc. to find photos, maps, identification guides and more.
Biology 101
Sections/topics include: Introduction (Unifying Themes of Biology, Careers, Conservation, Scientific Method), Chemistry of Life (Atoms, Chemical Bonds, WaterThe Cell, Cell Theory (Types of Cells, Membrane Structure, Permeability, Connection / Communication), Cellular Metabolism (Energy, Respiration, Photosynthesis), Cell Division (Cycle, Chromosomes, Mitosis, Meiosis), Mendelian genetics (Heritability, Phenotype vs. Genotype, Punnett Squares, Other Mechanisms of Inheritance), DNA, Genes,and Proteins (Structure, Replication, Protein), Gene Revolution (Biotechnology, Cloning, Genomics), Mechanisms of Evolution (Darwinian Theory of Evolution, Speciation, Phylogeny and Systematics), Origins (Early Earth, Life Forms), Evolution and Diversity of Land Plants,, Plant Structure / Growth / Reproduction / Behavior, Animal Evolution / Diversity / Physiology / Reproduction / Development / Behavior, Skeletal and Muscular Systems, Gas Exchange and Circulation (Respiration, Human Respiratory System), Nutrition and Digestion, Osmoregulation, Urinary / Immune / Endocrine / Nervous Systems (Neurons, Nerves Signals, Synapses), Population Dynamics and Community Ecology, Ecosystems and Biomes, Conservation (Species Extinction, Population Recovery). Also includes a glossary. From
Biology News
Features current news articles and resources on biology.
Directory of biology websites.
Reliable information on over 5,500 plants and wild animals. Includes an online version of the Sibley Guide to Birds as well as information from Audubon field guides.
Encyclopedia of Life
"The Encyclopedia of Life (EOL) is an ambitious, even audacious project to organize and make available via the Internet virtually all information about life present on Earth. At its heart lies a series of Web sitesone for each of the approximately 1.8 million known speciesthat provide the entry points to this vast array of knowledge. The entry-point for each site is a species page suitable for the general public, but with several linked pages aimed at more specialized users. The sites sparkle with text and images that are enticing to everyone, as well as providing deep links to specific data."
The Evergreen Project
Shows biomes of the world, freshwater and marine ecosystems.
Integrated Taxonomic Information System
You will find authoritative taxonomic information on plants, animals, fungi, and microbes of North America and the world. Search by common name or scientific.
Life Science Teaching Resource Community
"The Archive contain[s] more than 2,200 peer-reviewed teaching resources including audiovisual materials, lesson plans, teaching journal articles, and scientific content materials." Allows advanced searching by Grades/Age levels, Title, Author, Cultural Aspects, Funding Sources, Difficulty Levels and more.
Living Things
Hands-on activities, online exhibits, articles, videos, and more, all about living things. From The Exploratorium.
Plants Database
"The PLANTS Database provides standardized information about the vascular plants, mosses, liverworts, hornworts, and lichens of the U.S. and its territories." A database of images can be found here. From the USDA: Natural Resource Conservation Service.
Tree of Life
Provides information about the diversity of organisms on Earth, their evolutionary history (phylogeny), and characteristics. Linked hierarchically.

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American Chemical Society
News and linked resources arranged by grade level for students and educators as well as professionals.
An international directory based at the Department of Chemistry, University of Sheffield, England.
ChemEd DL (Chemical Education Digital Library)
"A storehouse of tested digital resources for education in the chemical sciences. Our aim is to be the place on the Web where you can contribute, share, organize, and use high quality chemistry education materials."
Chemistry at
Includes many links and articles to chemistry information.
Chemistry Study Guides
Sections include: Fundamentals of Chemistry (Units, Scientific Notation, Significant Figures, Periodic Table, Atomic Structure), Bonding (Chemical Bonding, Properties of Chemical Bonds, Ionic / Covalent Bonds), Stoichiometry, Gases (Pressure, Kinetic Molecular Theory), Solutions (Chemicals, Compositions, Properties, Solubility), Acids and Bases (pH, Buffers, Titrations), Electrochemistry (Galvanic / Electrolytic Cells, Thermodynamics), Reaction Kinetics (Reaction Rate Laws, Mechanisms), Organic Chemistry. From SparkNotes.
Eric Weisstein's World of Chemistry
Comprehensive. Sections include Chemical Reactions, Experimental Chemistry, Geology, Inorganic Chemistry, Mineralogy, Organic Chemistry, Petrology, Quantum Chemistry.
Chemistry Glossary
"An online dictionary of AP Chemistry terms that you will need to know for the AP Chemistry Exam." From
Chemistry in History
"Explore the story of chemistry across centuries." Topics include: People, Themes, and Activities. From the Chemical Heritage Foundation.
Directory of National Historic Chemical Landmarks
"The mission of the [National Historic Chemical Landmarks (NHCL or Landmarks)] program is to enhance public appreciation for the contributions of the chemical sciences to modern life in the United States and to encourage a sense of pride in their practitioners for chemistry’s rich history." Browse the list by Year It Was Designated; by Landmark Category; by State; or by Country. From the American Chemical Society. See also the "Landmarks Timeline."
Element Discovery Timeline
"[A] table chronicling the discovery of the elements. The date is listed for when the element was first isolated. ... Click on an element's name to see its entry in the Periodic Table and get facts for the element. " From
General Chemistry Online
Contains the Common Compound Library, articles, FAQ, tutorials, a glossary, simulations, a trivia quiz. Provided by the Department of Chemistry, Frostburg State University.
It's Elemental: The Periodic Table of Elements
Click on the element for basic uses and facts on each one.
Khan Academy Chemistry
"Videos on chemistry (roughly covering a first-year high school or college course)."
The Orbitron
"[A] gallery of atomic orbitals and molecular orbitals on the WWW." Topics include: Images representing atomic orbitals and molecular orbitals; Animated plots of wave functions; Animated plots of electron density; "Dot-density" plots of electron density; Plots of radial distribution functions. From the University of Sheffield, England.
Periodic Table of the Elements
This periodic table is geared toward elementary, middle school, and high school students. Information includes descriptions of the elements, the naming of new elements, what the periodic table is and how to use it, and "Chemistry in a Nutshell." From the Los Alamos National Library.
Thanks to Chemistry
"Uncovers the chemistry and the history hidden inside the stuff of our lives." Topics include Health, Communications, Energy and Food and Water. From the Chemical Heritage Foundation.
Visual Elements Periodic Table
"The Royal Society of Chemistry's interactive periodic table features history, alchemy, podcasts, videos, and data trends across the periodic table. Click the tabs at the top to explore each section. Use the buttons above to change your view of the periodic table and view Murray Robertson’s stunning Visual Elements artwork. Click each element to read detailed information." From the Royal Society of Chemistry.
Web Elements
Two versions of the periodic table exists at this site: the "Professional" edition for scientists and advanced students, and the "Scholarly" edition aimed at school students. Click on an element to get its description and essential characteristics, then choose other information, such as history, uses, compounds, and updates.
Who Discovered the Element Gold, Silver, Copper, Neon, etc.?
Each element is arranged alphabetically with the name of the discoverer (when known) and the year of its discovery. Click on the name of the element for more information. From the Jefferson Lab.

Cosmology - Theories of the Universe
Popular Theories of the Universe & History of Cosmology
Copernican System
Focuses on Nicholas Copernicus' theory, Galileo, and the "Copernican Revolution" that challenged and ultimately helped to overturn the Ptolemaic view of Earth as the center of the universe. From the Galileo Project at Rice University.
Cosmic Journey: A History of Scientific Cosmology
An examination of theories of the universe's origin including the Big Bang and Steady State theory. From the American Institute of Physics.
Overview and history of cosmological theories of the universe. From Encyclopedia Britannica.
Khan Academy: Cosmology and Astronomy
Free online courses.
Cosmology and the Big Bang
Overview as well as questions and answers. From the Astronomy Department at Cornell University.
Cosmology and Theology
Encyclopedic article. Topics include: The Big Bang, General Relativity, Quantum and String Cosmologies, Steady State Theory, and more. From The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. See also: Creation and Conservation, The Cosmological Argument, and Many-Worlds Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics.
The Elegant Universe
From PBS Nova. This series examines modern cosmology, a history of cosmic theories, and the many questions arising from humanity's attempts to understand the cosmos. Apple QuickTime plugin required to play videos.
NASA: Introduction to Cosmology
Focuses on the Big Bang theory.
Neil deGrasse Tyson: Cosmology Articles
Other related articles from this popular astrophysicist are available.
The Origin of the Universe
An introductory article for educators and students. From
Ptolemaic View of the Universe
Focuses on Ptolemy's Earth-centric universe and Aristotle related theories. From the Galileo Project at Rice University.
Stephen Hawking's Universe
A history of cosmology with an emphasis on the Big Bang as a central theory. See also Stephen Hawking's website as well as Discover Channel's website about Stephen Hawking.
The Strange Second Life of String Theory
From Quanta Magazine.
String Theory for Dummies Cheat Sheet
Theories of the Universe
An overview of major scientific theories regarding the physical origin of the universe. From
A Theory of Everything?
From PBS Nova.
The Theory of Parallel Universes
Top 10 Weirdest Cosmology Theories
From New Scientist.
Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP)
"The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) is a NASA Explorer mission that launched June 2001 to make fundamental measurements of cosmology -- the study of the properties of our universe as a whole." From NASA.

Alternative Theories
Biocosm Theory
Alternative cosmological theory of the universe proposed by James N. Gardner.
Electric Universe Theory
Overview of the theory.
Holographic Principle
Videos featuring Michael Talbot's theory of the universe as a hologram. See also Wikipedia's article on the Holographic Principle (please note their disclaimers).
Multiverse and Parallel Universes
Article from Wikipedia (please note their disclaimers).
Oscillating Universe Theory
Article from Universe Today. See also Wikipedia's Cyclic Model article (please note their disclaimers).
String Theory
Focuses on the "superstrings" theory of the universe. See also Michio Kaku's M-Theory website.

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Earth Science Featured Resource
Salem Science
Includes: Earth Science - Earth Materials and Resources, Earth's Weather, Water, and Atmosphere; Earth's Surface and History; Physics and Chemistry of the Earth. Available to members of Thrall.

Other Resources
Climate Change
Special coverage web guide providing access to web and library resources about climate change, global warming, and related concepts. Provided by Middletown Thrall Library.
Earth Science World Image Bank
A collection of quality photographs in categories like volcanoes, weather, lakes, dunes, etc. Images are for the public, educators, and the science community.
EarthGuide - Educational Resources in Earth, Marine, Environmental and Planetary Sciences
Contents include: news, image database, animations, "Current Conditions on Earth" directory, resources for students and teachers, and more. From the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, UC San Diego.
EarthNotes are summaries of interesting and timely information about Earth and Earth scientists. They are stand-alone, one or two page, illustrated reports that inform the general public about how Earth is part of their lives. The reports are contributed by knowledgeable Earth scientists on a wide range of topics. Topics include oil in the sea, hydraulic fracturing, Japan's 2011 earthquake and tsunami, groundwater, coalbed methane production and critical minerals. From the American Geosciences Institute.
Earth Science
Current news articles about earth science. From Science News.
Earth Visual Dictionary
Colorful, labeled diagrams. Topics include Geography, Geology, Meteorology, and Environment. From the Merriam-Webster Visual Dictionary Online.
Environment Blog
Environmental news, issues, reports, and other resources on the web and in the library. A Middletown Thrall Library blog.
Faultline: Seismic Science at the Epicenter
Topics include: Live Eye on the Earth; Great Shakes; Quake Basics; Damage Control; and Active Zone. From the Exploratorium museum in San Francisco, CA.
Frequently Asked Volcano Questions
Questions and answers to what, why, how, where and when relating to volcanoes. Also includes such questions as where to visit a volcano, can I climb a volcano or is Dante's Peak real? From USGS/Cascades Volcano Observatory.
Gem Encyclopedia
Search or browse. You can filter gem search results by color, country, rough, or polished. Includes tips for gemstone buyers. From the Gemological Institute of America.
How Stuff Works - Earth Science Channel
Learn about carbon-14 dating, archeology, geology, fossils, diamonds, and much more.
NASA: Earth
Includes News, Earth Tweets, Earth Image of the Day, Climate Change, Hurricane Updates, Fires and Smoke, and other topics.

See also these related NASA sites:
Earth Observatory
"The purpose of NASA's Earth Observatory is to provide a freely-accessible publication on the Internet where the public can obtain new satellite imagery and scientific information about our home planet."
For Kids Only: Earth Sciences Enterprise
General information about planet Earth especially for young people. [note: while this site has not been updated since 2004, the information/interactive activities under pages like "How NASA Studies Land" seems okay)
The Gateway to Astronaut Photography of the Earth
"The Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth hosts the best and most complete online collection of astronaut photographs of the Earth from 1961 through the present."
NEO: NASA Earth Observations
"Our mission is to help you picture climate change and environmental changes happening on our home planet. Here you can search for and retrieve satellite images of Earth."
NASA Science: Earth
Topics include: Climate, Carbon & Ecosystems, Surface & Interior, Atmosphere, Weather, and Water & Energy Cycles. Also includes new on NASA's current Earth science missions.
NOAA Education Resources
Information about the Earth's atmosphere, atmospheric conditions, oceans (oceanography), and weather. Provided by the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).
Science Daily - Earth and Climate News
National Geographic
News, images, videos, and other information about Earth science (and other topics).
Principal Types of Volcanoes
Includes some images and diagrams. From the USGS.
U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)
"The USGS serves the Nation by providing reliable scientific information to describe and understand the Earth; minimize loss of life and property from natural disasters; manage water, biological, energy, and mineral resources; and enhance and protect our quality of life."
A directory of links to volcanoes in the United States and around the world. Many include a map locating the volcano. From the USGS.

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General Science
Annals of The New York Academy of Sciences (NYAS)
"Published since 1823, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences is the Academy's premier scientific publication, offering commissioned review, perspective, and commentary articles in several topical areas, in addition to original research articles in select areas of biological sciences."
Find photos of plants, animals, fossils, people, and landscapes from around the world. Scientific names can be entered to find photos of an organism.
Curiosity Online
"Curiosity Online is pursuing the answers to life's most curious questions." From the Discovery Channel. Click their "All Topics" button to expand the menu of browsable subjects.
Directory of science websites, a service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.
EurekAlert! Science News
Science News, a service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Exploratorium: Explore
"Hands-on activities, online exhibits, articles, videos, and more." Topics include: Astronomy, Culture, Earth, Everyday Science, Human Body, Listening, Living Things, Material World, Mind, Seeing. From the Exploratorium museum in San Francisco, California.
Fractal Geometry
An introduction and overview of fractals from Yale University.
HighWire Press
"A division of the Stanford University Libraries, HighWire Press hosts the largest repository of free, full-text, peer-reviewed content, with 968 journals and 1,390,068 free, full-text articles online. " Note: Not all articles in this database are free. Search results may contain articles only available by purchase. Some articles in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobe Reader.
NASA's Visible Earth
Provides a consistently updated, central point of access to the superset of NASA's Earth science-related images, animations, and data visualizations. These images are considered to be in the public domain.
National Geographic: Encyclopedia Entries
Filter your search by Grades, and by Subjects such as Biological and Life Sciences, Earth Science, Ecology, Environmental, General, Geology, Human Geography, Meteorology, Oceanography and Physical Geography. From National Geography.
The Office of Scientific and Technical Information
"'s SciCheck feature focuses exclusively on false and misleading scientific claims that are made by partisans to influence public policy. It was launched in January 2015 with a grant from the Stanton Foundation."
Science Visual Dictionary
Topics include: Chemistry; Physics:Mechanics; Physics: Electricity and Magnetism; Physics: Optics; Measuring Devices; and Scientific Symbols. From Merriam-Webster Visual Dictionary Online.
" is a gateway to over 50 million pages of authoritative selected science information provided by U.S. government agencies, including research and development results."
An online magazine and web portal devoted to science, technology and medicine. Articles are up to the minute.
"Science Friday is your trusted source for news and entertaining stories about science. We started as a radio show, created in 1991 by host and executive producer Ira Flatow. Since then, we've grown into much more: We produce award-winning digital videos and publish original web content covering everything from octopus camouflage to cooking on Mars. SciFri is brain fun, for curious people."
"A gateway for experiencing contemporary science and technology through online and offline interactive programs and experiments." From the New York Hall of Science.
The Why Files
The science behind current world events in the natural world.
World Library of Science
"The World Library of Science is a free online resource for a global community. Developed as a partnership between UNESCO and Macmillan Science and Education, this online Library offers quality Nature Education content in short eBooks and articles, serving a mission to equalize access to high quality resources for science education for all communities across the globe. All offerings are digital, allowing easy access to online tools and networks. The content of the World Library of Science is meant to inspire more learning and curiosity, and help train students and teachers alike, both in the content and cultural impacts of scientific discovery." From UNESCO and Nature Education.
Select a country to go to its specific scientific databases and/or journals. Or type in a keyword to search the whole site.

Jump to...

Biotechnology - Genetic Engineering,
Genetically Engineered Organisms, GM Foods
Agricultural Biotechnology
Sections include: Biotechnology Glossary, Blogs, How the U.S. Government Regulates Biotech Plants, Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ), Roles of USDA Agencies, and more. From the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA).
Biotechnology Factsheets
From the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.
Food from Genetically Engineered Plants
Sections include: Consumer Information about Food from Genetically Engineered Plants, How FDA Regulates Food from Genetically Engineered Plants, and more. From the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
Genetically Engineered Animals
From the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
Genetically Engineered Foods
Topics include: Food Sources, Side Effects, and more. From
Genetically Modified Food
News and articles from The New York Times.
National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)
"The National Center for Biotechnology Information advances science and health by providing access to biomedical and genomic information."
Non-GMO Project
"The retailers who started the Non-GMO Project were motivated by a simple idea: they believed that consumers in North America should have access to clearly-labeled non-GMO food and products, now and in the future. That conviction continues to be the guiding force behind the Non-GMO Project, which offers North America's only independent verification for products made according to best practices for GMO avoidance."
What Is Agriculture Biotechnology?
From How Stuff Works.
See also:

General Information about Genetics
Disease InfoSearch
"Simply type in the name of a condition above and Disease InfoSearch will locate quality information from a database of more than 13,000 conditions and thousands of support groups and foundations." From Genetic Alliance.
DNA Learning Center
Includes Programs, Websites and Resources, such as Biology Animation Library and 3-D Animation Library. From Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory.
Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE)
"The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) Consortium is an international collaboration of research groups funded by the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI). The goal of ENCODE is to build a comprehensive parts list of functional elements in the human genome, including elements that act at the protein and RNA levels, and regulatory elements that control cells and circumstances in which a gene is active. ENCODE data are now available for the entire human genome. All ENCODE data are free and available for immediate use." From University of California, Santa Cruz.
Fact Sheets
Written for students, teachers and the general public, fact sheets explore the social implications of genetic research, and explain complex genetic concepts and research techniques.
Genetic and Rare Conditions
An alphabetical list of disorders with links to support groups, information on genetic conditions /birth defects for professionals, educators, and individuals.
Genetic Counseling
From Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Genetic Counseling
From MedlinePlus.
Genetic Science Learning Center
From the University of Utah to help people understand how genetics affects their lives and society. It has interactive and print based resources, information and activities, and teacher resources.
Genetics Home Reference: Your Guide to Understanding Genetic Conditions
Topics: Genetic Conditions, Genes, Chromosomes, Handbook, Glossary, Resources. From U.S. National Library of Medicine.
Genetics Journal
Online archive to the journal "Genetics" from 1916 to the present. From the National Library of Medicine.
National Human Genome Research Institute
"The National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) led the National Institutes of Health's (NIH) contribution to the International Human Genome Project, which had as its primary goal the sequencing of the human genome. This project was successfully completed in April 2003. Now, the NHGRI's mission has expanded to encompass a broad range of studies aimed at understanding the structure and function of the human genome and its role in health and disease." See also these related sites:
Talking Glossary of Genetic Terms
Created to "help everyone understand the terms and concepts used in genetic research. In addition to definitions, specialists in the field of genetics share their descriptions of terms, and many terms include images, animation and links to related terms." Read and listen to a description as well as the pronunciation of each term.
Genetics and Genomics for Patients and the Public
"Covers everything from detailed information about genetic disorders, background on genetic and genomic science, the new science of pharmacogenomics, tools to create your own family health history and a list of online health resources." From the National Human Genome Research Institute.
Newborn Screening Program
Topics include: Screened Disorders; Information for Families; Information for Healthcare Providers; Specialty Care Centers; Laws and Regulations; Funding; Selected Publications and History. From the NYS Department of Health, Wadsworth Center.
"A free science library and personal learning tool brought to you by Nature Publishing Group, the world's leading publisher of science. Scitable currently concentrates on genetics, the study of evolution, variation, and the rich complexity of living organisms."
See also:

Geology & Geological Eras
Alphabetical Listing of Mineral Species
Exploring Time and Space
"Explore the history of life through geologic time in North America." Click on a map or select a time period. You can see each state's rock and fossil time period.
Geologic Sites Throughout New York State
From the New York State Museum.
Geologic Time
Topics include Eon Overview, Formation of the Earth, Earth's Atmosphere, Earth's Surface, Dating Methods, Earth Processes, and Life Processes. Also includes a glossary found in the lower left column. From the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History.
Includes: Mineral Pictures, How to Look at a Rock, Identify Rocks, Rock Pictures, Basics (Rocks, Minerals, Gemstones, Earth Resources, Geologic Hazards, Landforms, Fossils, Geologic Time, Evolution, Parts of the Earth, Plate Tectonics, Geology of Other Planets), Earthquakes, and Explore Geology, which includes: Geology of Your Area, Careers and Jobs, Geology and the Arts, History of Geology, Biographies of Geologists, References for Advanced Students, Paleontology, Fieldwork, Travel, and fun facts. From
Basic questions are answered about the rock cycle, earth's layers, minerals and fossils.
Mineral Identification
Identify the minerals you find as you follow the exercises on this site. There are also sections about igneous and metamorphic rocks and the physical characteristics of each kind of rock.
Mineral Science - Learn More
Find links to other geology sites that include clubs, associations, and mineral collections in museums around the world. From the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County.
Mineral Sciences Collections Search
Browse by gems and minerals, meteorites or rocks and ores. Also search by keyword or do a detailed search using name, color, location and more. From the Smithsonian.
Minerarology Database
" has been running since October 2000 with the aim of building and sharing information about minerals, their properties and where they are found. It is now the world's largest public database of mineral information with an army of worldwide volunteers adding and verifying new information daily." Then we can indent thirteen and fourteen underneath.

See also:
The Chemical Elements and Mineralogy
"Click on an element to find out details about this element and related mineralogy. Elements in a darker shade of grey are not found in natural minerals but some may be found in trace amounts in the Earth."
How to Photograph Minerals
"Mineral photography is a skill requiring a good understanding of your camera settings and the lighting and positioning of your mineral specimen. This section gives easy access to some of our resources for mineral photography including important articles, message threads, equipment reviews and of course our messageboard where you can ask your own questions about how to make the perfect mineral photo.
The Most Common Minerals on the Earth
Mineralogy Specimen Database
Search by keyword. From the Natural History Museum of London.
Tour of Geologic Time
Geological eras and time scale / prehistoric timelines. "Here you can journey through the history of the Earth, with stops at particular points in time to examine the fossil record and stratigraphy." Includes information and animations about plate tectonics and continental shifts/movements. From Berkeley University.
See also:

The Basic Interactions
Short animations with a multiple choice question illustrating such things as speed, acceleration, sliding friction, velocity and more. From Fear of Physics.
Einstein Archives Online
"The Einstein Archives Online Website provides the first online access to Albert Einstein's scientific and non-scientific manuscripts held by the Albert Einstein Archives at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, constituting the material record of one of the most influential intellects in the modern era. It also enables access to the Einstein Archive Database, a comprehensive source of information on all items in the Albert Einstein Archives."
Eric Weisstein's World of Physics
Encyclopedia and dictionary of physics that can be searched or browsed alphabetically or by topic. Good explanations of the various laws of physics. From Wolfram.
The Nature of Reality: The Physics of Nothing, Everything, and All Things in Between
A blog about physics from PBS NOVA.
NOVA: Physics + Math
Besides episode information you will find: Articles, Audio Stories, Interactives, Interviews, and more. From
Devoted to physics and engineering with a good deal of astronomy information. High quality links, "ask experts", online essays, and on online club for physics teachers. Sprinkled throughout with quotes from Einstein, Aristotle, Hawking and more.
Physics Study Guides
Topics include: Units, Scientific Notation, Significant Figures, Vectors (Addition, Multiplication), Kinematics (1D / 2D Motion), Dynamics (Newton's Three Laws, Uniform Circular Motion), Work, Energy and Power (Conservation of Energy), Linear Momentum (Conservation of Momentum, Collisions), Rotational Motion (Kinetics, Dynamics, Angular Momentum), Oscillations (Simple Harmonic Motions), Gravitation (Kepler, Newton, Potential, Orbits), Thermodynamics (Structure, Gas, Heat), Magnetic Forces and Fields, Optics (Light, Geometric Optics, Optical Phenomena), Special Relativity. From
Physics World
Physics news, jobs, and resources maintained by the Institute of Physics. It features regular news, jobs, resources, enhanced highlights of Physics World magazine, events, free alerts, a buyer's guide, products & press, and advertising opportunities for businesses.
Why Are Things Colored?
Includes: Light Is Made, Light Is Lost, Light Is Moved, Vision. From the Institute for Dynamic Educational Advancement (IDEA).

Quantum Mechanics / Quantum Physics
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Quantum Mechanics
Definition and encyclopedic article. See also these related articles:
Action at a Distance in Quantum Mechanics
Collapse Theories [of wave functions]
Copenhagen Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics
Many-Worlds Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics
Measurement in Quantum Theory
Quantum Approaches to Consciousness
Quantum Entanglement and Information
Quantum Field Theory
Quantum Logic and Probability Theory
The Uncertainty Principle
Quantum Computers & Computing
Directory of multiple resources.
Quantum Mechanics Made Relatively Simple
Video lectures from Cornell University.
Quantum Physics Overview
Topics include: Wave-particle duality, Schroedinger's Cat, Young's Double Slit Experiment, the Many Worlds Interpretation, Unified Field Theory, and more. From
Quantum Science
News and articles. From New Scientist.
ScienceDaily: Quantum Physics News
Stephen Hawking: "Does God Play Dice?"
Transcript of lecture on quantum mechanics, light, and randomness.
Uncertainty Principle
From the University of Oregon.
Wave-Particle Duality
From LibreTexts.
What Is Quantum Mechanics Good For?
An interview with physics professor and author James Kakalios explaining how quantum mechanics is useful to us. From Scientific American.

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